The Saba Islander

by Will Johnson


Paths of Origin

The Horton’s and the Hamilton’s

By: Will Johnson


Checking out family history.

For a number of years I have been intrigued by a story told to me by a cousin (Carl L. Johnson) who lives in New York and who is nearly twenty years my senior.

According to him our great uncle Peter George Simmons nicknamed “Unc” used to tell him that we were related through the Horton’s to Alexander Hamilton of Nevis. “Unc” is also the great- grandfather of Commissioner Bruce Zagers.

My search thus far has been directed to the Hamilton’s with no firm results. The relationship could have been via the Simmons’ to the Fawcett’s, his mother’s side of the family and I am still looking at that.

You must take oral history seriously and many times I have solved questions of local history through listening to old timers telling stories they had heard from grandparents. Peter George Simmons was born on October 1st 1858 and died April 30th 1946. His mother Alice Eliza Simmons born Horton was born in 1831. He would have known his great-grandfather James Horton Sr. who died in 1869 at the age of 94 (born on St.Eustatius 1775). He would have also known his grandfather James Horton Esq. born 1801. He was the “Kings Attorney” and died February 6th 1877 and his wife Catharine Hassell died on March 3rd, 1873.

Thus growing up between 1858 and 1877 he would have heard stories around the old coal pot or oil lamp about his mother’s people. She (Alice Eliza Horton) born 1831 would in turn have heard stories from her mother, grandparents and other family members about their people on St.Eustatius and why they had moved to Saba.

They are descended from Mark Horton and Martha Adriaansen (see population list 1728). Sometime before 1750 the family moved to St.Eustatius and was prominent there in the old English church and as business people. They were married into some of the prominent families there, the Hills, Clarancieux, Mussendens and so on. There is still a building on the Bay in Statia known as the” Horton Building” (See Steve Kruythoff’s history of the Windward Islands.) This building used to belong to Mark Horton.

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Two native St. Eustatius historians Mr. Arthur Valk and Mr. Irvie Mussenden.

The Horton family being a small one is well documented through my research. I have not yet been able to verify with any degree of certainty the relationship between the Horton’s and Alexander Hamilton. However I have found a lot of interesting things along the way.

Alexander Hamilton did have an important connection to Saba via his mentor the Reverend Hugh Knox.

In Ron Chernow’s book,” Alexander Hamilton”, he has the following to say about the Reverend Hugh Knox and Alexander Hamilton.

“ The next year, Hamilton published two more poems in the paper, now recreating himself as a somber religious poet. The change in heart can almost certainly be attributed to the advent in St. Croix of a Presbyterian minister named Hugh Knox. Born in Northern Ireland of Scottish ancestry, the handsome young Knox migrated to America and became a schoolteacher in Delaware. As a raffish young man, he exhibited a lukewarm piety until a strange incident transformed his life. One Saturday at a local tavern where he was a regular, Knox amused his tipsy companions with a mocking imitation of a sermon delivered by his patron, the Reverend John Rodgers. Afterward, Knox sat down, shaken by his own impiety but also moved by the sermon that still reverberated in his mind. He decided to study divinity at the College of New Jersey (later Princeton) under its president, Aaron Burr, an eminent divine and father of the man who became Hamilton’s nemesis. It was almost certainly from Knox’s lips that Alexander Hamilton first heard the name of Aaron Burr.

Alexander Hamilton.jpg

1996. MY SON Peter Charles Albert Johnson and me at the tomb of Alexander Hamilton in Manhattan.

Ordained by Burr in 1755, Knox decided to propagate the gospel and was sent to Saba in the Dutch West Indies. This tiny island near Nevis measured five square miles, had no beaches, and was solitary enough to try the fortitude of the most determined missionary. Rough seas girded Saba’s rocky shores, making it hazardous for ships to land there. As the sole clergyman, Knox resided in a settlement known as the Bottom, sunk in the elevated crater of an extinct volcano; it could be reached only by climbing up a stony path. Knox left a bleak picture of the heedless sinners he was assigned to save. “Young fellows and married men, without any symptoms of serious religion…but keepers of negro wenches…rakes, night rioters, drunkards, gamesters, Sabbath breakers, church neglecters, common swearers, unjust dealers etc.”

An erudite man with a classical education, Knox was starved for both intellectual companionship and money. In 1771, he visited St.Croix and was received warmly by the local Presbyterians, who enticed him to move there. In May 1772, he became pastor at the Scotch Presbyterian church at a salary considerably beyond what he had earned inside his old crater,

After the lonely years in Saba, the forty-five-year-old Knox felt rejuvenated in St. Croix. It is there that Alexander Hamilton became his student and protégé.

Much has been written about the Reverend Hugh Knox and his stay on Saba. Dr.Johan Hartog mentions that after 16 years on Saba he moved to St. Croix, due to some accusation by some inhabitants of Saba, probably of a moral nature.

However Governor Peter Simmons and prominent Burghers as well as members of the congregation, provided him with a letter of introduction, which expressed their confidence in him.

There is also confusion as to who was his wife. One historian claimed that he was married to Christina Love daughter of the Governor of St.Lucia. Another claimed that he was married to the daughter of the Governor of St.Croix. However the author Henry B. Hoff in and article in National Genealogical Society Quarterly (March 1986:31) entitled “Some Americans in the Danish West Indies” confirms that he was married to Mary Simmons, daughter of Governor Simmons of Saba. He had a daughter Rebecca who died on December 29th, 1773. She would have been named after Rebecca Correa, her grandmother who was the wife of Governor Peter Simmons. Even if he had taken up the lifestyle of the Sabans and taken on a wench as a result of a mid- life crisis, his father-in-law would have given him a letter of recommendation.

Mary his wife died on St.Croix on January 24th, 1778. Hugh died on St.Croix at the age of 63 on October 9th, 1790. After his wife Mary died he may have taken on a new wife.

Whereas Nicholas Cruger exposed Alexander Hamilton to material realities, the Reverend Hugh Knox provided him with a strong spiritual and intellectual grounding. Knox… who took Hamilton under his wing shortly after Rachel’s death…. Was a Scottish Presbyterian Minister at odds with the mainstream of his faith because of his firm belief in free will over the Calvinist doctrine of  predestination. For someone like Hamilton who was otherwise predestined to a life of obscurity, we can see how Knox’s philosophy would have appealed to him.

The Reverend’s encouragement and influence undoubtedly led Hamilton to dream big dreams. Knox a brilliant sermon-writer and occasional doctor, took the young orphan under his wing and tutored him in the humanities and sciences.

When he was able to get away from the office, Hamilton further expanded his intellect in Knox’s library, where he read voluminously in the classics, literature, and history. Hamilton, who had early fancied himself a writer, published an occasional poem in the local paper, and impressed the residents of the island with a particularly vivid and florid account of the great hurricane of 1772.

On August 5th, 1779 Governor Thomas Dinzey of Saba in a letter to His Excellency General Clausen of St.Croix concerning runaway slaves refers to the reverend Hugh Knox as attorney to himself and Isaac Simmons, so that the reverend remained in contact with Saba even after he had moved to St.Croix.

In 1790 when the Reverend Dr. Thomas Coke of Methodist fame visited Saba he wrote that there was a church but no preacher. The last preacher Dr. Hugh Knox had left the island in 1771 (Knappert p.115)

Mention is also made of the English Presbyterian Church on Saba and the Rev .Hugh Knox in 1755 and 1758. In a letter from G.van Essen dated 26 February 1756 and 18 January 1758, which is to be found in the old classical archives in Amsterdam section St.Eustatius p.20 -2l, he refers to Rev. Hugh Knox on Saba.

Hamilton’s grandmother, Mary Fawcett was already married in 1718 and had a daughter Ann. In all she had seven children including Rachel(born 1729). Only Ann and Rachel survived. In 1740 Mary divorced and moved first to St.Kitts and then to St.Eustatius. Her husband John died in 1745. In Ron Chernow’s book page 17 he states: “ In 1756, one year after Hamilton was born, his grandmother, Mary Faucette, now residing on the Dutch island of St.Eustatius, made out her final will and left “my three dear slaves, Rebecca, Flora and Esther”, to her daughter Rachel.” The Horton’s and the Faucette’s would have been on St.Eustatius at the same time and would certainly have known each other.

I was helping two young archaeologists recently. They found in the archives of the Roman Catholic Church a printed sermon from 1792 dedicated to the people of Saba. It was a eulogy for the 29 year old Reverend John Elsworth delivered at Ellington, Connecticut, parts of which I will quote from.

Not long after he finished his studies at Yale College and commenced a preacher, he was invited to the Church of Christ in the Island of Saba, formerly the charge of the great and good Doctor Hugh Knox.

Warmed with love to Christ and zeal to promote the salvation of men, he received solemn ordination to the work of the gospel ministry, as the pastor of the church of Christ, in that distant region.*

*The island of  Saba, contains about 120 European families – is in the vicinity of St. Eustatius and belongs to the United States of Holland. It enjoys a salubrious air, and is esteemed the healthiest of the islands.

That eminent divine, the Rev. Doctor Knox, member of the Presbytery of New York, was minister of the church there many years. He removed from thence to the island St.Croix, where, lately by death, he finished the labors of a long and useful life.

Alexander Hamilton #2.jpgIn consequence of application from the church in Saba, for one to succeed him, Mr. Ellsworth was ordained in September 1789, at East-Windsor, by the Ministers of the Church in the Vicinity. Letters from respectable characters on the island, with which the writer has been honored, express the highest and most affectionate esteem of him, during his ministry there.

To the Church and Congregation in the Island of SABA

Honorable and Christian Friends

When, at your request the late Mr. Elsworth received ordination, with a view to his settlement with you as your spiritual pastor, it was the hope of the friends of religion that his life and usefulness would be prolonged, and that you might long rejoice in his light. But the sovereign arbiter of life, is sometimes pleased to call from their labors, those who appear to be best qualified, by natural and gracious endowments for extensive usefulness; perhaps to teach us that he is not confined to means, to us apparently best fitted to carry on the purposes of his grace, and also, to raise them to sublimer scenes, and more exalted employments in heaven.

The church of Christ sustains a loss by the death of so good and promising a Minister of Jesus. We sincerely sympathize with you in this bereaving providence. May a double portion of the spirit of this ascended servant of Christ, rest on his successor, who is now with you; and may his faithful labours for your spiritual interests, be crowned with abundant success.

After his return to the continent, he frequently expressed a cordial regard for you, as a people whom he sincerely loved, and whose salvation he ardently desired; and with whom had his health permitted, he would have chosen to have spent his days; and a grateful sense of those respectful attentions shewn to him, and kindnesses received from you, and particularly from His Honor Governor Dinzey, and his worthy family, in whose family he lived, during his residence in the island.

Accept, honorable and Christian brethren, the following discourse, as a tribute of respectful remembrance from the afflicted parents of the deceased, and from your sincere friend and servant, in our common Lord,

David M’Clure



Nov. 30, 1791

The sermon of 31 pages I will not serve up for your benefit, however it is interesting to read of the great interest in the salvation of  the group of night rioters as described by Doctor Knox in 1772. By the way I passed this along to some of the younger folks and they had a good laugh and one said ;”My God, it is true, the more things change the more they remain the same.”

A sermon made at the funeral of Governor Peter Simmons by the Rev. Dr. Hugh Knox is supposed to be in the Library of Congress. To any of you computer experts who can find that sermon for me I would be deeply grateful.

And the search for the relationship with Alexander Hamilton goes on. To those who do not know him I will end with the following quotation:

“ I consider Napoleon, Fox and Hamilton the three greatest of men of our epoch, and if I were forced to decide between the three, I would give without hesitation – the first place to Hamilton. He divined Europe.”

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand.

So far for now this bit on information on Dr.Hugh Knox and John Elsworth.

This article was published in 2008 in The Weekender of The Daily Herald. Since then I was able to obtain a copy of the sermon made by the Rev. Hugh Knox for his mother-in-law. Hugh Knox was married to Mary the daughter of Lt. Governor (Commander) Peter Simmons. When I find everything I will update this article.










The Reverend Father Bruno Boradori

BB073.jpgBy; Will Johnson

Several years ago [August 2016], a nephew [Titus Bartels]of Father Boradori brought me his collection of old slides and photographs. I was staying at a Hotel in The Hague, where I was attending meetings as a board member of the P.C.N (Dutch Caribbean Pension Funds).

A friend of mine and former resident of Saba Marlene van Dam had met by sheer coincidence on a train a niece[Lidewijde Kwant-Bartels], of the reverend Roman Catholic priest. When told that Marlene had lived on Saba the niece said that she had an uncle who had been a priest there and had died there as well. She did not have any photographs of her uncle, so Marlene sent me an e-mail and asked that I get in contact with the niece. I did that and sent her a number of photographs of the good priest which I had in my extensive photo collection. At the same time, I informed her that I could remember Father Boradori always with his camera walking around and taking photos and asked her if she could find out what had become of his photo’s. Her brother was on vacation in Spain and she promised she would put him in contact with him when he returned. I recall speaking on the phone with him and making arrangements when and where to meet when I would be in The Hague. I told him of the work I was doing as a hobby with old photographs on Facebook and elsewhere, so that he could see what I was busy with. He knew the islands well as he had worked as a teacher on St. Maarten back in the sixties. When he arrived at the hotel, he had two sizeable boxes with him. He told me that after seeing what I was busy with on Facebook and so on, out of love for the history of these Eastern Caribbean islands, that he had decided that his uncle would not have wanted his old photos and slides to remain in storage and not shared to be viewed by the people of the islands where he had lived and worked.


Father Bruno Boradori here standing in the cemetery where he found his last resting place in 1967.

Father Bruno Boradori worked on Saba from January 25th, 1953 to July 31st, 1957. I served as an altar boy under him from 1953 until August 1955 when I was sent to Curacao to continue my schooling there.

He again worked on Saba from August 15th, 1965 until February 23rd, 1967. Before coming to Saba and in between he had worked on the French side of St. Martin, on St. Barth’s and on the Dutch side of St. Maarten.

When he worked on St. Maarten between 1957 and 1965, I finished my schooling on Curacao and in 1960 started working in the Old Court House in a variety of government departments such as the Post Office, Receivers Office, Curacao Bank at times, and also assistant to the Notary. Because of my knowledge of the Dutch and Papiamento languages the Lt. Governor Mr. J.J. Beaujon would recruit me on weekends to type letters for him. Mind you officially I was employed as a Postal Clerk and all these other duties were without remuneration. I was not happy but in later years I appreciated the fact that because of moving from one office to the other I learned a lot which came in useful. I remember some afternoons Father Boradori, Louis Emile’Lil Dan’ Beauperthuy, my boss Alphonse 0’Connor and a couple of others would gather on the square in front of the store and office of Mr. Cyrus W.Wathey who would be relaxing in a chair outside his office. These boys were not easy with jokes they would tell in the presence of the good priest who was also part of the group. I can hear Mr. Cye now saying: “Father pretend you did not hear this one, and then go on to tell a risqué joke.  But of course, they discussed world news and things of local interest as well


Father Boradori loved the islands he served. Here he is on a hill in St. Barth’s when that island was relatively undeveloped..

While serving on each island Father Boradori did the islands a great service. No one ever expected that the islands would change so fast. Long suffering and on their own, no one ever expected the change which would follow after the nineteen sixties. Everywhere he went he would have his camera with him and could be seen taking photos of the scenery as well as the people of the islands.

On February 14h, 1967 Bishop J.M. Holterman visited Saba. When he left Father, Bruno Boradori accompanied the Bishop to the island of St. Eustatius.

On Saturday February 18th, 1967 Father Boradori accompanied by Father P. Weyers, parish priest on St. Eustatius returned to Saba. This was made possible as Mgr. Holterman who promised to function as caretaker of the parish on St. Eustatius.

On Wednesday February 22nd, Father Boradori experienced a small accident. A government truck lost speed at a steep corner and drove backwards into the car of Father Boradori.

On Thursday morning F February 23rd Father Boradori brings his neighboring priest Father Weyeres to Flat Point and at 7pm in the evening he starts the stations of the cross in the church of Windward Side. By the 2nd station he winks at the nun, and goes back to the altar, but at the communion table he staggers and collapses. Sister Agatha had run to him and catches him just in time; a chair is brought forward; bystanders rush forward and someone rushes away to call the doctor.


Here are some colleagues of Father Boradori at the Presbytery in Marigot with the church in the foreground.  Nineteen fifties.

Father Boradori becomes red as fire and his pulse immediately becomes weak. He is laid down flat on the altar. He started to moan weakly, and gasped for breath. Sometimes he moved a bit with an arm or a pull of his leg. When he collapsed, he became immediately unconscious or nearly unconscious. Once he sighed something like,” Sister help me. God I am suffocating.” After 10 minutes the doctor arrived, who gave him an injection. Shortly after that oxygen is brought.

In the meantime, on hearing what is happening in the church the building is quickly filled with interested persons. Also, the Revered Aldrick Hassell, the priest of the Anglican church, is part of the crowd. A heavy shower of rain prevents others from coming and prohibits those who are present from leaving.

All attempts by Doctor Senden are in vain. Finally, he tries mouth to mouth resuscitation, it does not help. Around 8.20 pm Father Boradori passes away, still lying on the altar without having revived.

It was decided to lay him out in the church. The people are requested to temporarily leave the church. Fortunately, there is decent coffin available on the island. Dressed in a gown of the Dominican Order with a cloak he is placed in the coffin after which the church is opened once again.

The Administrator of Saba Mr. G. van der Wal the same evening informs Father Jansen, priest on St. Maarten as to what has happened. He informs the Dominican Nuns, and has the news broadcast from the radio station of St. Maarten, and informs his Vicar. P.L. van Dijk on Curacao. He in turns informs Bishop Holterman, the colleagues on Curacao, Aruba and Bonaire, the Reverend father provincial at Nijmegen as to what has taken place on Saba.

During the entire night the faithful keep watch in the church, and the electricity company kept the lights on.


Father Boradori here overlooking to Bay of Marigot. Nineteen fifties.

The following morning, Friday February 24th, Father Bern Janssen, father of Philipsburg, father Kemps C.S.Sp., chancellor at Marigot, father B. Weyers, priest of St. Eustatius, Mother Vicar etc. all came to Saba. At the request of the Vicar, Father Bern. Janssen, before he goes to Saba, a charter flight of Winair is sent to Curacao to fetch the Vicar. Accompanied by Brother Remigius Magnum O.P. Father Vicar flies to St. Maarten, transfer there to another plane to Saba, takes lots of flowers from St. Maarten, where the sad news was cause for general consternation, and arrives at 4.30 pm at the airport on Saba.

In Windward Side father Weyers assisted by Father Kemps at 4.30 pm had already started the funeral Mass which was attended  by a chock full church, whereby the whole of Saba was represented among others the Administrator of Saba Mr. van der Wal with his wife, both Commissioners [M.W.Nicholson and J.A. Anslijn], Doctor and Mrs. Senden, Reverend Aldrick Hassell, Mister William Burcher a handicapped American friend of the deceased, the Dominican Nuns and so on.

(Because some of those present before sunset had to return to St. Maarten, the Requiem Mass was started at 4.30 pm already.)

After the funeral service the coffin was close and Father van Dijk, provisional vicar performed the absolution assisted by fathers B. Weyers and B. Jansen.


Father Bruno Boradori (center) holding a child. Together with his colleague Father Leeuwenberg.

The body is carried out of the church by parishioners from all parts of the island, to the cemetery opposite the church and there at the foot of the cross, committed to the earth. After the funeral the Vicar emotionally thanked everyone who in one way or the other had shown their sympathy.

At the death and funeral of Father Boradori it was evident how generally appreciated he was on these islands. For all concerned this death came unexpected. The Sisters had occasionally noticed on occasion that he had begun to look swollen. In a conversation with Mgr. Holterman in the week before his death Father Boradori had said that lately he did not feel well. He himself suspected that his blood pressure was high and for that reason used little salt. Mgr. Holterman urged him to have himself examined by a doctor. That was his intention. It did not reach that far.

In Father Boradori the Windward Islands have lost a great friend; he had auctioned his heart to these islands.

He was born on May 22nd, 1908 in Nijmegen. (At this death he had not yet reached the age of 59!). He was ordained in 1934, and came to the Netherlands Antilles in 1936. First, he worked on Curacao, Aruba and Bonaire. In March 1939 he came to the Windward Islands and remained there with a few brief interruptions until his death. The parishes of Mariot (French St. Martin), L’Orient (St. Barthelemy), Saba (2x) and Philipsburg came to know him as their priest. He was considered by his parishioners by his never-failing friendliness – “father Boradori rules his parish by his smile!”-. by his love for the poor and the ordinary people, by his sparkling readiness of speech. To his colleagues he was an unsurpassable host and an example of happy male piety.


I did not remember at first that I had served as an altar boy with father Boradori from 1953 to  August 1955 when I left for Curacao to go to school. I am the altar boy on the left, in the middle looking towards the camera.

The day after the funeral of Father Boradori all of his colleagues returned to their posts. Father Vicar takes over the care of the Saba parish himself.

From all sides people request Masses be held for the soul of Father Boradori; on Tuesday February 28th a solemn funeral service was held in The Bottom and on Thursday evening March 2nd -exactly a week after his demise a solemn Mass was held in the Church in the Windward -Side.

Also Reverend Aldric Hassell, the priest f the Anglican parish, invited Father Vicar and the Dominican Sisters to attend a requiem Mass in his church in The Bottom on Wednesday March 1st. Of course, they accepted the invitation. From this gesture and from the large attendance of the Anglican community proved how much Father Boradori was appreciated in those circles also.

Father Boradori on St. Barth's.

Father Boradori here on his beloved St. Barth’s long before the development of the last decades.

Immediately after his burial voices were raised asking for a suitable gravestone. On Sunday February 27th, in the Windward Side slides were shown of Saba and the surrounding islands. The proceeds are for a gravestone.

In the week after February 26th Father Vicar, helped by Brother Remigius put things in order. Books and clothes were packed up and sent to Curacao. The records were brought up to date; old litter was burnt.

On March 2nd, father Weyers came to relieve the Vicar who had to call together his council and therefore travelled on Friday March 3rd via St. Maarten and Puerto Rico to Curacao.

On Tuesday March 7th father Vicar signals from Curacao that Father Leeuwenberg has been appointed as priest for Saba. On Thursday March 9th father Vicar returns to Saba while Father Weyers returned the same day to St. Eustatius- while the Vicar makes all the preparations for the arrival of Father Leeuwenberg. He arrives on Monday March 13th. That same evening he has a Holy Mass said in The Bottom and gets acquainted with his parishioners. On Tuesday March 14th he serves the Holy Eucharist in the Windward Side and also gets acquainted with the parishioners there, and on Wednesday there follows an acquaintance session with Hell’s Gate

On Thursday March 16th father Vicar returns to Curacao and thereby brings to a close the eventful period of February 23rd to March 16th on Saba.


Travelling with the Mitchell’s.

By Will Johnson


Mrs. Elizabeth Mitchell at Brimstone Hill St. Kitts looking towards St. Eustatius.

In March 1947 Carleton Mitchell and his wife “Zib” [Elizabeth] visited St. Eustatius and Saba. Their boat the “Carib” started out of Trinidad. The boat had been shipped by a freighter from the United States, and would be sailed back along the islands all the way back. From this trip the book “Islands to Windward” resulted as well as an article in the 1947 National Geographic Magazine.

It is always interesting when reading old books about the Caribbean to learn the views expressed about our islands and life as it was back then.

For this article bear in mind that in 1947 Saba and St. Eustatius had no airports, no piers, no electricity, no roads to speak of. Compared to modern times life was difficult and one had to work hard to survive.

For whatever reason the ‘Carib’ stayed on course and bypassed St. Martin, St. Barth’s and Anguilla. A great pity as his book and the subsequent article in the National Geographic Magazine has some really nice photos from that year. With so many changes since then to the islands mentioned ,people always love to see how their islands looked like in their parents and grandparent’s lifetime.

From St, Kitts the ‘Carib’ sailed directly to Statia and then on to Saba. Interesting to readers today are he and his wife’s impressions of both of these Dutch islands.

Between St. Kitts and Statia the channel is only six miles wide. As we approached Sandy Point, I was curious to find what the sea would be doing. It couldn’t be more uncomfortable. I thought optimistically, soon to do battle with the southerly swell that we were riding up the coast. All our rolling up to that point was only an introduction to the main event.”

Just a few weeks ago I was up on deck of a large cruise ship going in that same direction and experiencing in a most comfortable way that rolling of the waves in the relatively shallow waters of the channel.

“What is that yellow flag?” asked the man in the stern of the rowboat that came alongside a few minutes after our anchor had splashed down. He was wearing a khaki uniform of a police officer with brown leather puttees and a sun helmet.

“That flag?” I repeated in surprise. “That’s the Quarantine flag. It means that we are coming from a foreign country and want to enter.”

“Oh!” he said, swinging himself aboard. “You don’t need anything like that. You’re welcome here.”

And that was the extent of the formality surrounding our entrance to Statia. Later the Governor, Ernest Voges, was to elaborate: “We’re too small for red tape and all that nonsense.”

Not so anymore. Statia now has more security checks at the airport and harbour and so on than St. Barth’s which gets probably three hundred thousand tourists a year.

“Reading had prepared me for the two towns of Statia. “The town stands on the South side, and is divided into two parts, denominated the Upper and Lower Towns, “said the 1818 SAILING DIRECTIONS. “ The latter is on the shore; it consists of shops and warehouses, and is inhabited in the day only, as the inhabitants pass their nights and holidays in the Upper Town, 50 0r 60 feet above the level of the sea, to which they climb by means of steps cut in the rock. The Lower Town consists of a single street, and is very indifferently built. The governor’s house and fort are in the Upper Town….The island produces coffee, rum, sugar and vegetables. The air is wholesome in the Upper Town, but the steep cliffs prevent the Lower Town from being refreshed by the breezes, the ground is cultivated as much as possible, and covered with sugar-canes to the very summit of the mountains. Water is so scarce, that the inhabitants drink rain-water, which is preserved in cisterns…. The road [harbour] is much frequented, and ships are frequently there, even in the hurricane months…

“Orangetown has a Dutch “feel” immediately noticeable to anyone who has been to the Netherlands. It is something that cannot quite be define; it has to do with the neatness of the houses, the cleanliness of the streets – a prim look, a scrubbed look. There was none of the surliness in the people that was to be found in St. Kitts – and indeed almost throughout the British Islands.

Pandt Family Group

Governor Ernest Voges, second from left, here on Statia with friends and family.

Governor Voges was expecting me, having watched Carib come into the anchorage. His hospitality was swift and complete. He wanted us to come ashore and spend the night as his guests; when I decline, he insisted that we spend the next night with him. Within a few minutes I was driving around Orangetown in his truck, and he had arranged to show us all over the island the following morning.

After a comfortable night ‘Zib’ and I went ashore to meet Governor Voges. He drove us to the highest point on the island that could be reached by road. Everything was sere and brown. Against a normal yearly rainfall of 48 inches there had been less than 26, Statia no longer is “covered with sugar canes.” The ground is exhausted and very little is grown.

In the afternoon we packed ditty bags to spend the night ashore. Governor Voges wanted us to meet some of the island people, and we were anxious to do so. After an early dinner, chairs were brought out on a veranda and the guests arrived. It was a pleasant evening. Although all were of old island families, they were cosmopolitan in their outlook. Many had lived in the United States – a Mr. Hill [Josiah?]  had spent some time in Boston, and one of the Pandts worked in the post office in Minneapolis – and the talk shifted from Statia to “The States” and back again. Several remembered Fritz Fenger when he had cruised through the islands in ‘Yakaboo’ and ‘Diablesse’; Zib was later to be given some of the “slave beads” from the wreck of an old slaver similar to those that Fenger had collected on his visit twenty years earlier.

Ida, Herman, Tommy, Maud, Mac Pandt

Members of the Pandt family.

The Pandts were direct descendants of Hendrick Pandt, one of the four men who had been forced to sign the capitulation to Rodney. Curiously enough, a few days after our visit a Rodney was scheduled to stop at the island; this one a junior officer aboard a British ship of war making a good-will call. I have often wondered if some of the more elderly ladies present that night were entirely cordial in their manner to a Rodney, even after a century and a half!”

He continues to Saba and has this to say: “Saba, poor little island, suffers the fate of being the glamour girl of the West Indies. Standing off by herself on her own bank of soundings and minding her own business, she is beset by all sorts of weird creatures like yachtsmen and authors – and sometimes a combination of the two- and her ‘Onder Gezaghebber’ has the slightly harried air of a man in a lady’ store on bargain day. Although nature tried to make her hard to meet and even more difficult to know, her name is better known than those of many of her bigger sisters. It is said that her admirer gaggle both vowels of her name, producing sounds like the “ahhs” that make a doctor happy, but she has learned to put up with the curses of celebrity. She has even suffered through being the heroine of a magazine piece entitled “Island of Women,” and through an invasion by a motion picture company.”

He goes on to describe the then difficulties of mooring a boat at Saba and said that as ‘we neared a boat put out from the shore, and Governor Huith was soon alongside. Governor Voges had called him on the radiotelephone to say that we were on the way.”


Governor Max Huith on horseback here checking the progress of the road leading to St. John’s.


After deciding to anchor the “Carib” at Ladder Bay he writes: “It was a long row back, and I saw why the boatmen prefer to have visitors anchor off Forty Bay, where the boats are kept.’ Neddy’ [Nederville Heyliger], the Chief Boatman, whose father before him was Chief Boatman, is as fine a surf man as there is anywhere and his exploits are part of the Saba legend, but he doesn’t like to row a heavy boat a mile any more than you or I.

I had gotten over the first hurdle. The next was close ahead: sitting on a pile of camera gear and other duffle. I realized that we were about to land, only there wasn’t any landing! Ahead there was nothing but rock- rock in ledges, rock in pinnacles, and just ordinary boulders. The swells dashed into this assemblage of disaster to boil and hiss and foam, exactly as the sea boils and hisses and foams on rocks in the sailor’s most hideous nightmare. As I started to say something in warning, Neddy, who had been watching the oncoming breakers over his shoulder, gave a grunt and dug his steering paddle into the water; all the oarsmen dug and we spurted ahead. I clutched both gunwales and hoped for the best. There was a lurch, a bump, and a scrape, and the boat was up on the beach above the surf line, so that I could step ashore dry shod. Neddy seemed about as concerned as a taxi driver who had made it to the Penn station – to him it was just another fare and, I gathered, on an easy day.

So I prepared for the next hurdle, that terrible climb up the side of the mountain, and found Governor Huith was waiting in a jeep.


Boat Captain Neddy Heyliger in white jacket here landing a Jeep at Fort Bay.

That jeep was the greatest event in Saba history. It had been on the island just a couple of weeks at the time of our arrival, and Neddy and his fellows were still repairing the boats stove on bringing it ashore – a feat that I still cannot conceive. When it had finally been landed and started up the mountain over the road that had been building for 5 years, some of the inhabitants departed for the higher hills. Others walked over from Hell Gate and Windward Side just to have a look. The governor took school children for rides and they screamed when the “houses went back so fast.” The porters dubbed it “the donkey on wheels.” In the town, paths had to be widened to let it make the corners., But lie all forms of progress it had its opponents. Some felt that it would take the income from the porters, those who carry the goods up the mountain on the backs of donkeys or on their own heads. The children had no doubts about it, though. Whenever it stopped in the town it would be surrounded by a gaping circle. Now another road is under construction to the more distant village of Windward Side, and it was rumored that KLM, would inaugurate helicopter service by 1950!

We were installed at the Government Guest house, a pleasant two-story house maintained for visitors, which may be used at the discretion of the governor. There is no hotel on the island. Here we found ourselves with all the comforts of home: a mechanical refrigerator, china, glassware, linens, and even someone to preside over the kitchen, a worthy by the name of Albertha Leverock. Albertha had been caring for guests since the Tertiary Age. She looked on us as her personal property and was always ready to “froi” something on the kerosene stove.

Geraldine Leverock

Geraldine Leverock. was a daughter of Alberta.

Saba is a Dutch island and the inhabitants speak English. The whole atmosphere of the island is of the outside world. Conversations especially turns toward the sea: for generations the man have sailed away while the women watched the dancing blue waters for their return. We were told that thirty Sabans commanded ships of the United States merchant marine, and that the skipper of one of the first supply ships to make the landing of the invasion of Africa was from the island.

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Alberta Leverock. She was a sister of “Gardy” (Carl Hassell) and mother of Geraldine, Page and Anna.

Many of the stories of ships brought by to whistle a salute to the people in the hills. “Cap’n So-and-So of the S.S. Blanck; he’s from Windward Side, and last year he was going to Aruba and he came up close to the rocks and blew the whistle three time. Long blasts….”

The chapter on Saba is a long one and I am quoting only the most important sections. He describes their departure. “Neddy [whom he refers to as Netty]  waited for us at the foot of the Ladder. It was so smooth that getting out and away was easy. We swung back aboard ‘Carib’ and Johnson, the Saban who had been with Al, dropped into the boat. We waved farewell to Neddy as he rounded the Point, and to Rebecca [Levenstone] before she disappeared around the turn.”

Great memories of their 1947 visit from the book “Islands to Windward.”

And if Albertha has caught up with the Mitchell’s in that Great Beyond I am sure she is ‘froiing’ something for them on her kerosene stove right now.


Neddy Heyliger up front on the right and Mrs. Rebecca Levenstone second on the right carrying Mrs. Elizabeth Mitchell out to the Carib from The Ladder Bay. 1947.









By. Will Johnson


Dudley Johnson and Al Hassell here checking the hot springs at Great Hole.

In the month of May 2002, I wrote an article for The Daily Herald. I was in Florida and had a dream in the early morning hours of May 8th. I was in the middle of a volcanic eruption and a silent scream went up towards the heavens. The scream was from at least twenty-eight thousand people being consumed by Mount Pelee, and the lovely city of St. Pierre on Martinique forever to be remembered for her destruction by the angry volcano.

It took me nearly all day before I realized what the dream was all about. It was one hundred years after the destruction. Living for centuries on an active volcano must have seasoned my genes to worry about an eruption.

I was busy writing an article updating the general public as  to what if anything is being done to monitor the volcanoes of Saba and Statia. I was quoting from the report of Elske de Zeeuw-van Dalfsen and Reinoud Sleeman which gives a good idea as to what is being done by the Royal Institute of The Netherlands concerned with monitoring weather, and now also volcanoes. It is quite detailed but for the layman it is quite readable. And then just a few days ago there was an article from the Saba Government Information service about a visit from the Institute and giving an update on the equipment they are using and so forth. Given the circumstances and the fact that we are still in the month of May I will incorporate some of the technical details as well as memories of the devastation caused on May 8th, 1902 by the Mt. Pelee on Martinique.

The report made by the Department of Seismology and Acoustics of the Royal Meteorological Institute (KNMI) at the Bilt in The Netherlands reminded me of an incident years ago.



Saint Pierre, had an appeal of a flower that blossomed  once only, in one place: that no eye will ever see again.

“Early seismic monitoring on the islands of Saba and St. Eustatius was carried out by the Lamont –Doherty Geological Observatory (U.S.A.) who operated a single one-component seismometer on Saba from 1978 to 1983.”

I remember this site well. It was situated on a then vacant lot next to my house at the edge of the cliff. One afternoon I got a phone call and the man at the other end was out of breath. Practically screaming into the phone asking me:” How are you coping? Is there anyone alive besides you? “Turns out he was calling from the Colombia University in New York City. Somehow they were monitoring this seismometer next to my house. When he told me that there had been a 9 plus magnitude earthquake right under Saba, I assured him that all was well and to hold on a while and I would check the antenna. I checked and came right back and reassured him that indeed all was well and that one of my neighbours had tied his cow to the antenna. So, each time when the cow walked around in search of grass and pulled on the antenna, the equipment was registering earthquakes of more than 9 points magnitude on the Richter scale.”

The extensive report which I was quoiting from for this article has this to say: “As of 1 January 2017, the population of the island of Saba reached 2010 people, and the population of St. Eustatius totaled 3250 people. The expansion of the population at the islands observed over the past decade is expected to continue, implying that the number of people at risk, and the complexity of evacuation in case of volcanic unrest will also increase. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) is responsible for the observations of geophysical phenomena at the islands. In acute potential hazardous situations, KNMI informs local authorities at the islands as well as the departmental crisis coordination center of the Ministry as soon as possible. Responsible agencies on the islands can take further action if needed, assisted by the crisis coordination center. Apart from these potential urgent warnings, KNMI sends the local government a status report 1-2 times a year.

A report from the government information service of Saba of this past week reports the following.


Around 8am Mt. Pelee erupted with such force that the beautiful city of St. Pierre was totally destroyed in a matter of forty five seconds.

“The Department of Seismology and Acoustics of the Royal Netherlands Metrological Institute (KNMI) has been working on Saba for several years to monitor the dormant volcano Mount Scenery. The monitoring of a volcano is best done using multiple techniques to access the state of activity.

One way to monitor is through a so-called Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). In January 2018, the KNMI installed the first GNSS at St. John’s, followed by a second installation at the Juancho Irausquin Airport in February 2019. Both instruments are operating as expected and data are operating as expected and sent automatically to the KNMI in The Netherlands every hour, using a transmission facilitated by SATEL.

The GNSS instruments have to be regularly maintained to ensure their continued operation. The instruments are subject to harsh environmental conditions: the chloride ions in the air from the evaporated sea salt in ocean spray and the high temperatures speed up the reaction time, corroding even stainless steel. A GNSS instrument measures the distortion of the earth’s surface, making it possible to see whether the surface swells or deflates.

794_001_ak-saint-pierre-la-martinique-une-rue-principale.jpgA second way to monitor is through temperature sensors. In January 2018, a temperature sensor was installed at the hot spring opposite Green Island. This sensor takes a measurement every 20 minutes and stores the data locally. The measurements form a time series and stores the data locally. They give more detailed information about temperature changes of the hot spring and is compared to the single measurements that have already been taken.

If the volcanic activity changes, the temperature of the hot spring can increase. There will also be more fumes. The population is asked when they see fumes or indications of any other possible volcanic activity, to inform the safety coordinator of the Public Entity.

The last visit of the KNMI to the hot spring was in February 2019. Improvements were made to the installation, which includes temperature probes that are buried in the ocean bed and covered with rocks to keep them in place, and data loggers, small yellow cases mounted on the rock above the spring and housed in a black case to protect it against the elements. Due to the high surf activity, it remains to be seen how long the temperature probes and their cables will survive. A more rugged installation is planned for the future.

The third monitoring instrument is the seismometer. The KNMI has installed has installed three seismometers on Saba; in The Bottom, St. John’s and Windward Side. A fourth seismometer will be reinstalled shortly at the airport after the instrument has been repaired. Seismic instruments are important because they record the vibrations of the earth. If a volcano becomes active, the seismic vibrations will intensify, explained De Zeeuw-van Dalfsen. KNMI representatives now visit Saba on a regular basis.


The seismic network is designed to monitor the seismicity in the Caribbean Netherlands region and the seismic signals preceding or accompanying the earthquakes in the region, which may generate tidal waves. The seismic network has been gradually expanded since 2006.

The current monitoring network of Saba is in development. The goal is to enhance the monitoring capability. Future improvements include 1) the installation of a seismic station in the north west area of Saba, 2) the placing of another GNSS station on the island and, 3) installing a more durable temperature sensor which transmits data in real-time to monitor the hot spring on Saba.

So far, this excellent report on the activities of the KNMI.

“My grandmother Agnes Simmons born Johnson (born 1880) told me stories of the morning of May 8th, 1902. They heard two explosions coming from the South. They thought it must be a Dutch man-of-war visiting Statia .



1948. Lt. Governor Max Huith and Police Chief Bernard Halley here checking the hot springs between Tent Bay and the Ladder. They were covered up by a large land slide in recent years, but can still be experienced on the sea bed in the same area.

Captain Irvin Holm (born 1890) who lived on the road to Booby Hill also heard the explosions. He and his brother Captain Ralph as boys were curious to know what was taking place. They walked to the edge of Booby Hill and saw that it was getting dark to the South where the explosions had come from. It got darker as the day went on and ash started to fall on the island. They realized that something had happened but could not imagine how terrible it was. It took almost a week before the news came in. And in that news was included the death of Roland Hassell a mate on a schooner in the harbour of St. Pierre. He was the father of the well-known ‘Bungy’ Hassell from Under the Hill.

I am busy reading for the second time the book ‘The Coloured Countries’ by Alec Waugh. In 1928 he spent several months on the island of Martinique. One day he and his friend Eldred Curwin decided to visit of St. Pierre.

“Once we went to St. Pierre.

From Ford Lahaye it is a three hours’ sail in a canoe, along a coast indented with green valleys that run climbing back climbing through fields of sugar cane.

589_001_depts-divers-martinique-ref-d925-saint-pierre-st-pierre.jpg‘Nor, as you approach Saint Pierre, would you suspect that in that semi-circle of hills under the cloud-hung shadow of Mont Pele, are hidden the ruins of a city for which history can find no parallel.”

“ But it is not till you have left the town and have climbed  to the top of one of the hills, you look down into the basin of Saint Pierre, and, looking down, see through the screen of foliage the outline of house after ruined house, that you realize the extent and nature of the disaster. No place that I have ever seen has moved me in quite that way. At the corners of these streets, men had stood gossiping on summer evenings, watching the sky darken over the unchanging hills, musing on the permanence, the unhurrying continuity of the life they were a part of. It is not that sentiment that makes the sight of Saint Pierre so profoundly solemn. It is the knowledge rather that here existed a life that should be existing still, that existed nowhere else, that was the outcome of a combination of circumstances that now have vanished from the world forever. Even Pompeii cannot give you quite that feeling. It has not that personal, that localized appeal of a flower that has blossomed once only, in one place: that no eye will ever see again.

448_001_cpa-saint-pierre-la-martinique-la-rade.jpgSaint Pierre was the loveliest city in the West Indies. The loveliest and the gayest. All day its narrow streets were bright with colour; in sharp anglings of light the amber sunshine streamed over the red tiled roofs, the lemon covered walls, the green shutters, the green verandahs. The streets ran steeply, “breaking into steps as streams break into waterfalls.” Moss grew between the stones. In the runnel was the sound of water. There was no such thing as silence in Saint Pierre. There was always the sound of water, of fountains in the hidden gardens, of rain water in the runnels, and through the music of that water, the water that kept the town cool during the long noon heat, came ceaselessly from the hills beyond the murmur of the lizard and the cricket. A lovely city, with its theatre, its lamplit avenues, its’ jardin des plants’, its schooners drawn circle wise along the harbour. Life was comely there; the life that had been built up by the old French emigres. It was a city of carnival. There was a culture there, a love of art among those people who had made their home there, who had not come to Martinique to make money that they could spend in Paris.

234_001_depts-divers-martinique-ref-d916-saint-pierre-la-martinique-st-pierre-la-martinique-avant-la-catastropheThe culture of Versailles was transposed here to mingle with the Carib stock and the dark mysteries of imported Africa. Saint Pierre was never seen without emotion. It laid hold of the imagination. It had something to say, not only to the romantic intellectual like Hearn or Stacpool, but to the sailors and the traders, to all those whom the routine of livelihood brought within the limit of its sway. “Incomparable,” they would say as they waved farewell to the Pays des Revenants, knowing that if they did not return, they would carry all their lives a regret for it in their hearts. And within forty-five seconds the stir and colour of that life had been wiped out. History has no parallel for Saint Pierre.

Sitting on the walls as a boy and listening to the old captains and sailors who had known and loved this magic city, I became entranced with the Pays des Revenants and have had a lifelong regret that the city was forever lost. Living on a dormant volcano it makes sense to monitor what is going on and glad to share this with the people who have

Saint Eustatius Island was once an active volcano.

As can be seen in this photo St. Eustatius and St. Kitts are also dormant volcanoes and for the past years the island of Montserrat has been erupting, cause for alarm on the Dutch Islands as to what is being done about monitoring these volcanoes.

been wondering if anything is being done to monitor our volcano.





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Young Jan Philipszoon in front of the home of his grandfather Albert Buncamper to the head of Front Street in Philipsburg


By: Will Johnson

Some years past Ms. Bernadette (“Bunchie”) Buncamper shared with me a batch of old documents belonging to her grandfather Mr. Albert Buncamper. All yellowed and brittle and mostly written with pencil. It took me some time to discover that the old documents were actually a diary recording all that was taking place in the year 1927. These documents were the foundation for my book “The Diary of a St. Martin Salt Checker’.

Last year Mrs. Carolyn McIllroy-Buncamper after hurricane Irma gave me access to some equally old documents which turned out to be account books of her great grandfather. I refer to them as that as they contained hand written copies of all correspondence between Mr. Albert and his children mostly, as well as his friend C.B. Romondt whose home he took care of.


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Mr. Albert Buncamper here with his grandson Jan whom he raised. Mr. Buncamper intrigues me with his letters to his son Carl on St.Eustatius a teacher and later Administrator there. His son Walter worked with the Courts and later was Administrator of Saba. His daughter Coralie was a teacher on Saba and Elize stayed on St. Maarten. A very responsible family man who led his children to great heights.

Long before Xerox came into being Mr. Buncamper, who loved to write, came up with the idea to copy by hand each letter which he sent out via the post. Just imagine writing each and every letter twice! For me they are a treasure trove of information of the nineteen thirties. He would send his children and his friend an update on all that which was taking place ‘Up Street’ and on St. Martin in general. I am thinking of making another book called “The Letters’. This will require time and I will need help.

In the mean time I will quote from some of the letters so as to give an idea of life on St. Martin as documented from his home in ‘Up-Street” so as to give some idea of life in the nineteen thirties. Mr. Albert Buncamper died in 1941 the same year in which I was born’.

The setting from which he wrote his letters became a familiar and much loved one for me. Between 1955 and 1960 when I started living right across the street from his residence, I visited St. Martin twice yearly on my way to and from Curacao where I went to school. Little if anything had changed from the days of the nineteen thirties. The Great Patriotic War as the Russians call World War 11, had taken place and in 1944 St. Martin had gotten a moderate airport.


Pasangrahan  on the frontstreet 1951.jpg

Mr. Albert Buncamper refers to the start of this Government Building in 1937. It is built on land formerly belonging to the Buncamper family. This building became the Pasangrahan Hotel and when Eric Lawetz took it over in the nineteen fifties the alley was taken out in order to extend the hotel to the neighbouring property.

After the A.C.Wathey  pier was built in 1962 and a runway able to accommodate jet traffic in the mid nineteen sixties, the once unspoiled island went into a period of rapid development. Few people today remember how precious it was to have lived through the unspoiled existence of St. Martin and its people before 1965. The Second World War was fading into history and the island was mostly dependent on its own resources. The salt harvesting and export had ceased. People had left for Curacao, Aruba and the United States or had died out. The economy had changed hands from the powerful van Romondt family to Mr. Cyrus Wathey on the Dutch side and Constant Fleming on the French side and they controlled the political life of the island as well, for several decades.



Me [Will Johnson] here in 1960 coming from work. The house was then rented to Mr. Stetson Risdon. I would at times be called on to serve drinks at a poker game between Chester Wathey, Emile ‘Lil Dan” Beauperthuy, Alphonse O’Connor and Stetson Risdon.

  In general, though the island was at peace with the world and itself, allowing Mr. Buncamper to enjoy the quiet life he led in his home in ‘Up-Street’ while copying all his letters by hand. Letters which are scattered before me today (May 2019), as I write this. In this article I am presenting just a sample of the many letters for you to enjoy and to cherish the memories today, which he shared with us as he dutifully copied these letters in his diaries for all of us to enjoy.

St. Martin Feby.8th -1936

Mr. C.R. Romondt,

Dear friend,

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Captain Hodge’s Guesthouse where I lived was directly across the Street from the Buncamper home.

I am now writing you these few lines hoping they will find you and the family all well. We are having some deaths here lately. Our ‘landraad’ [local councilor] Jacob A. Richardson who was ‘landraad’ for many years has retired in the middle of last year and between the month of October, November or December received a gold medal of honor from the Government (Queen) he is now dead. He died Friday January foreday half past twelve o’clock. He is well known by all classes. He is 84 years old. He will be a great missing in the Methodist church. He was circuit steward, in the absence of Mr. Darrell and when he is on the Island, he bury any one, when Mr. Darrel was so much persecuted he was a great friend at his side now as a great friend to him in his troubles and stood to his side.


A sample of one of the letters. He wrote a separate copy of the letters he sent out and they now form an interesting chapter of life on St. Martin in the nineteen thirties.

There was a funeral. They came from all over the island, people from Marigot etc. Between sixteen to twenty cars were there.

We have it very hot up here now heavy drought. The earth is terrible dry. Water getting scarce. Cistern getting short of water. Hoping to get heavy showers. We all send howdy to you and all the others hoping you all are well and hope that your eyes are not troubling you. Jantje is O.K.  and he send howdy to you. Norma, Margaret and Helena ask to be remembered to you hopes you is well.

I must now close hoping you is well and all the families.

I remain your true friend.


St. Martin, April 28th, 1937


We had a lot of fun with Mr. Joe from Simpsons Bay and would help him pull in his nets right in front of the Pasangrahan Hotel. He lived with his wife down the alley and she was a member of the Buncamper family.

Dear Walter,

I am now writing you these few lines hoping they will find both of you well. At present I am no worse. Wren [Ah.Ah] husband Calvin arrived this morning in the ‘Baralt’. I hope you got through well, all your work good.

Netherwood pick salt two days last week also Monday and Tuesday this week.

We had last night a couple of good showers and this morning a heavy shower. We was having it very dry. This rain is a good help to the island. I hope we will get some more.

Invitation out for Ludwig Reginald [Carrty]

To Gladys Marie Hyacinth Houtman on May 12th 1937 at 8 o’clock pm. I must now close hoping both of you are well. I remain. Yours father,

Albert Buncamper

St. Martin, June 22, 1937


Michel Deher also from “Up-Street” here looking down on Philipsburg around 1955. Few changes had taken place from the time when Mr. Albert Buncamper was writing his letters next to us. Photo Guy Hodge.

Dear Carl,

I am now writing you these few lines hoping they will find you well. We had the submarine here for a few days. Plenty people went on board to see how she was situated. Walter, Baby [Elize], Jan and Olga. Walter give us a good history of her. Three of them slept on shore up the ‘Vineyard.’ I suppose they must have had in Statia a good time. I could not see her as the tree in Marther yard hid her from me. The new building for the Governor of Curacao [Pasangrahan] is going ahead. It will be a fine site in the Up Street. We hope to send a box or a pan with some mangoes for you today. Just after nine o’clock while writing you we receive the letter from George Fox with the money, also a letter for Walter. I must now close.

I remain yours father A. Buncamper

St. Martin, July 21st, 1937


Big change to St. Martin when the Juliana Airport was built in 1943. Also the Philipsburg Electric Company started by Governor H. Beaujon in the nineteen twenties were the two big changes in the first half of the twentieth century.

Dear Coralie,

I am now writing you these few lines hoping they will find you well. At present I am feeling no worse. I has to go in the hospital Friday for a change and then after go in every two weeks. As usual idea I believe that the new Sister from Aruba coming head of the Hospital and our Sister going Head of the hospital in Aruba. So that this Wednesday the 21st our new Sister will be here in the ‘Baralt’ so that Friday our Sister and the Doctor will show her how to act with me. The doctor going in the middle of next month and the new Doctor will be here so that our Doctor will be present to show him he will act with me. Some days I feel good and some days I don’t feel well.

You will receive a box of fruit by the ‘Baralt’ this trip. I hope you will receive it safe.

The firm of L.A. van Romondt and sons finish. Consta Fleming take over the shop, store etc.  Seye [Cyrus] Wathey bought the store and shop for $4.000.–

Marius, Beryl and others out of it, paid them off and close the place for a week. It is expected that Marias will attend the steamer this time as the month is not up. And it has to be fixed in Curacao who will be agent for the steamer.

‘Baby’ [Elize] will write you all the news. Remember me to Dr. Chateau and wife, nothing more to say. I remain, Yours Father A. Buncamper.

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The ‘Baralt’ at the Fort Bay on Saba, the monthly steamer serving the islands from Curacao.

St. Martin, January 22nd, 1938

Mr. C.B. Romondt

Dear friend,

I am glad to write you these few lines hoping they will find you and all the families well. Also hope that your eyes are no worst but improving.

Some days I am able to go out in the yard a little and some days I feel very bad. But what must I do trust in God. I feel these couple of days pretty good.

About the house. After I turn the man out of it I had to put boards in the floor and re nail the whole floor and shingle the Northern side of the main house just East of the Ell. Also put a little paint on the windows, doors and stillings as this work cost $11.63. The woman hire the house from August 29th, 1936 at $2.25 per month and paid the first two months’ rent $2.25 a month and afterwards $2.00 a month saying she could not pay for it. I intended to turn her out. But I reflect that it would be shut up after, for there is no one to rent houses.

Houses on the Back Street today is with common people and after they hire a house you have trouble with them to get your rent from them.

May 24th, 1937, we have plenty of rain and he House leak very much on the woman and children. So, she come around and ask me to do it. The whole of the Norther side of the roof was very old. I had to patch it several times. So, I send the carpenter down and get sheets of zinc and put the zinc over the wallaba shingles. Also put to the Eastern end with zinc over the shingles. The house is in good condition now. This last fixing of the house is done May 24th, 1937. Cost $ 11.91.

House rent from August 29th, 1936 to December 29th, 1937, 2 months at $2.25. 14 months at $2.– or $32.50

House rent in full up to December 29th, 1937 $32.50.

Fixing repairs twice                                                $23.54

Balance due for Rent up to date $8.96

January 21st ship to C.B. Romondt by a Post Office Order $9.00

Remember me to all the families. Hoping you all are well.

Yours true friend.

Albert Buncamper


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The large two story home on the right was the home of Walter Buncamper and it ran to the Backstreet. Located where now the “Old Street” is situated.

Interesting for those nowadays is that some of the things needed for his kitchen would be ordered from Curacao.

St. Martin, July 24th, 1937.

De Heeren C. Winkel & Zonen

Willemstad Curacao

I am now sending you an order for groceries as follows.

1 tin Wijsman butter 5lbs.

2 tins “               “  2lbs each.

1 tin Plum butter   4lbs each

3 tins Parrot butter 4lbs each

3 tins Lard butter 5 lbs. each

6 tins ‘Boterham Worst’

4 tins Pears

4 tins Peaches (Peas) 2-Coralie

8 tins Potted meat (24 poltchen/)

2 tins Sardines in oil (4)

6 tins Salmon in oil (4).

6 tins sliced beef.

12 tins Vienna Sausages

2.tins Edam Cheese. 3 packs with Rose Tea ½ lbs each.

Yours very truly

J.C. Buncamper

This is just a small sampler of the many letters he sent out from his peaceful existence in “Up-Street” on the Front Street in Philipsburg, St. Martin where he stated in 1937 that


“No one rents houses on St. Martin anymore.”


Photo from around 1924 by Mr. Baak a former Administrator of St.Eustatius. Imagine walking up that contraption with a load of salt on your head. The Salt Checker a man of importance back then keeping an account of each load of salt delivered.





By: Will Johnson


The Vineyard in the nineteen fifties with cattle roaming on the grounds.

Obviously, looking for a house was to be my first job. While aboard our ship [schooner Estelle]  we had seen shining above the green manzanille around the eastern bay corner, a little white housetop adorned with a big yellow star, looking very inviting from a distance. The estate belonging to it bore the sonorous name of “The Vineyard”, and it proved to be untenanted – although regrettably  we  could not find any grapevines.

I had to put up with a fairly stiff rent by St. Maarten’s standard but was not sorry because it happened to be the most suitable home imaginable. Our house was situated on the face of a steep hill, richly grown and strewn with boulders. When walking home through Front Street we often fell under the spell of the spot, especially so in bright moonlight, enhanced by the mysteriousness of the sounds of the living creatures in the wild darkness of the hills.

Because of its location, slightly elevated, the house afforded a splendid and varied view from our front veranda. Both of the green-walled village streets ran between the bay, always vivid and fidgety with the wide sea looming in the background, and the darker, nearly purple, water of the large salt pond.


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Looking from the hills above to the ‘Vineyard’ and the harbor the ‘Great Bay’ beyond.

“Fort Amsterdam, situated in a narrow neck of land, manifested itself as a boundary between the Bay and the Caribbean. Casting a glance from there to the right you could follow the upward line of the hills, resting finally on the highest summits of Sentry Hills, Mont des Accords and Flagstaff Hill. Their contours were shaped like a reclining giant in the background of the salt pond and, further up north, we saw the plantation house of “Madams Estate” and the hills of Prince’s Quarter.

Imagine ‘The Vineyard’ being no less than a ten-minute walk from this cozy corner! I now shake my head at such youthful obstinacy, but at the time we, the reckless newlyweds, had no objections.

“With regrets, we left St. Maarten on the March voyage of the ‘Estelle” [schooner of Capt. Tommy Vanterpool] in 1920. My wife and also my daughter, even though she was only one year old, had made many friends. Living in such a remote spot for some years may bring on a longing to return to civilization, yet farewell seemed to be hard. There was a feeling of leaving behind something special, a fine experience never to be relived.

“Our passage to Curacao, in the company of our little daughter, went before the wind and lasted about four days. Willemstad, its capital, looked like a metropolis. The year spent there slipped by quickly. Via Trinidad and Paramaribo, the ‘Nickerie’ took us back to the port of Amsterdam on Easter Monday, 1921.

Life went on, as life does. Nevertheless, we would not have liked doing without those years in St. Maarten.”

[ Far from the World’s Turmoil, St. Maarten 1918-1920 By F.S. Langemeyer C.E.]

The most memorable story I remember about the Vineyard is the one told to me by my boss Fons O’Connor. It was the introduction of the flush toilet inside the house. Back in the day the ‘outhouse’ was located a distance from one’s home where you ate and slept. It was sanitized from time to time with coal dust to keep down the odor as much as possible. I was told by my boss that when the ‘Vineyard’ was built that Mr. L.A. van Romondt had a flush toilet installed inside the house. What a to do among the population at the time. “Who would have thought that Mr. Van Romondt was a man like that. Doing he business inside the house, where he have to cook and sleep?”

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L.A. van Romondt with his wife “Poppie” Brouwer and their children Fritz, Lewis and Kees 1929, ‘The Vineyard’ St. Martin.

In those days it was customary for those who did not have an outhouse to carry the ‘night soil’ down to the beach and throw it into the sea. The belief I heard to justify this practice was that the sea cleaned itself every twenty-four hours. No need to worry except if you were a person who liked an early morning sea bath.

From the point of ‘doing his business inside the house’ the ‘Vineyard’ was a sensation at the time.

But for those who appreciated beautiful architecture and especially the then unspoiled setting would certainly have admired the ‘Vineyard’ from the very beginning. That is why I started this article with the memories of civil engineer F.S. Langemeyer who in later years considered it to have been a great privilege for him to have lived there.

Not only the building but the entire property located at the head of town demanded respect. The land extended to the very tops of the hills while the old town of Philipsburg lay at its feet. From the veranda one could enjoy the view of the beautiful town with the Great Salt Pond then full of activity spread out before it with the hills in the distance enclosing it like the oyster holding a precious pearl in its embrace.


The ‘Vineyard’ while to the head of town was more of a country house than a town house.

The closest neighbour was the Huith family further up the dirt road on the road to Pointe Blanche which remained unspoiled until the end of 1959 when construction started in that area.

The house was imported from Baltimore between 1871 and 1873. I have heard it told that the house was prefabricated and modeled after a home on the island of Martha’s Vineyard therefore the name ‘The Vineyard’.  It was imported by Mr. L.A. van Romondt. It was built by the by now well-known wooden frame construction. For those who may not know the van Romondt  family,they practically owned the whole of St. Martin from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the waning days of the mid twentieth century when Mr. D.C. van Romondt passed away in 1948 at his estate ‘Mary’s Fancy’. In my book “For the love of St. Maarten” several chapters were dedicated to this family. After that I established relations with many of their descendants living all over the world. Just a few nights ago before writing this article I had a call from a lady in upstate New York whose mother was by me many years ago. She wanted to get information on where she should stay and how she and her husband could get together to discuss ‘family’. And you can never tell. The first van Romondt came out from Holland a bachelor and ended up marrying Ann Hassell the granddaughter of the rebel Peter Hassell from Saba. I have several Hassell ancestors so you can never tell.


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Elize Buncamper (Miss Babe), Daisy Hoven van Romondt and Coralie (Miss Coxie) Buncamper. The Vineyard 1965. I corresponded with “Miss Daisy” who lived in Alberta Canada until she passed away in her nineties.

The ‘Vineyard’ changed hands to Mayor Louis Constant Fleming, who at the time along with Mr. Cyrus W.Wathey were buying out the van Romondt family as they left the island and/or were dying out. In 1938 he sold it to Ms. J.C. Buncamper. It is still owned by a member of the Buncamper family and has been largely restored since the damage caused by hurricane Irma in 2017.

In my book ‘The Diary of a St. Martin Salt Checker’ I cover the history of the family and the Buncamper ownership of the “Vineyard’.  Regrettably people do not seem to read books anymore as I still have boxes of this book lying around. I am like the man in V.S. Naipaul’s book, ‘The Suffrage of Elvira’ I think. An illiterate man dictated his thoughts on Hinduism to a publisher and had fifteen hundred booklets printed and put on shelves in his humble abode in the countryside of Trinidad. Never sold a copy of course, but the equally illiterate country folks thought he must be brilliant to have fifteen hundred books in his house. When he thought he had enough admirers he followed the route of so many islanders today and decided to run for Senator. But that is another story. So, besides the unsold books I have written and the large collection of other books I have people must have believed me literarily equipped enough to vote for me over five decades.


Looking from another side of The Vineyard in the direction of the Great Salt Pond and beyond.

In Joan D. van Andel’s book ‘Caribbean Traditional Architecture’ published in 1985 she reports more on the structure, “The design of the outside of the large house known as the ‘Vineyard’ on the outside of Philipsburg, differs very much from the traditional domestic building. Yet there are also many similarities. Its exclusive situation on the present W.G. Buncamper Street and its glamour give the house a special place within the traditional architecture of the island.

Although nothing is certain, this house probably owes its name to the fact that grapes once surrounded the house. The Caribbean [sea] grape is a succulent {Ipomea pescaprae) growing near the sea, a salty plant with small grapes which are not edible. [ Sorry to disagree but I would have been out of here already from a boy. Love sea grapes]. From the principal entrance of the estate, a drive leads to the front staircase leading up to the house. Where today we see flat pieces of land on either side of the drive and cows grazing in the short green grass, formerly the ‘grapes’ must have been grown, or perhaps other tropical plants. Now there is some vegetation on both sides of the front stairs, close to the house in a garden surrounded by a wooden fence.



My friends the late Bernadette Buncamper of The Vineyard with Lt. Governor Theodore M. Pandt her adviser and accountant for the various Buncamper businesses and holdings.


The location of the façade on the short side is striking. The rooms are situated on the long side, round a staircase and a passage. On the upper “floor” on both sides of the passage, there are bedrooms. In most houses in Philipsburg, the façade is on the long side and the rooms are divided along the width of this façade.

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Philipsburg around 1900.

There is an outside staircase leading towards the façade. The plan of the house is more complicated than the plans of the traditional houses in town: there are more apartments, and the indoor staircase and the passages make the design more intricate.

Nowadays there is only a verandah on the side of the front façade: in former times there was another at the back of the houses. In contrast to most houses in Philipsburg, where the verandah is often part of the roof construction, the verandah of the ‘Vineyard’ is built as an independent structure onto the floor of the façade. This is evident as the verandah is built against a gable.

The book goes on to describe several aspects of the buildings design. It goes on to state:” The Vineyard has been described separately because being on the east side of the town it occupies rather an isolated position in relation to the other domestic houses in Philipsburg, which are all situated on Front or Back Street. Moreover, owing to its size, it is not a townhouse, but has more the character of a country house.”


The Vineyard was a good setting for all kinds of social events.

My first visit to The Vineyard was in 1955. I had not made 14 yet. Teacher Frank Hassell took me there to see Miss Coxie (Coralie Buncamper) who had been a teacher on Saba at one time and was friends with my mother. She would visit my mother in the St. Rose Hospital when she had breast surgery for cancer and had to stay there for quite some time. I recall seeing their mother a lady of Dutch descent. Born Johanna Christine Lemke (January 31st 1866 and died May 16th 1961). That day holds a particular memory as we went with a car to have lunch with Mr. Emilio Wilson at his estate. No traffic back then. I believe it was Miss Coxie doing the driving knocking off a speed of perhaps five miles an hour with no traffic coming or going and Miss Babe cautioning Coxie to ‘slow down’.  In 1960 when I started working and living on St. Maarten I was always in the company of the Buncamper family. In my mind’s eye now, I can see Mr. Walter Granville Buncamper, a tall stately figure walking up the street on his way to the Vineyard to visit his sisters. I remember a number of times  sitting with ‘Uncle’ Carl Buncamper and the others, on the verandah with he giving me details of the former important families in the Eastern Caribbean.

I would like to end this article as I started it with the quote from civil engineer F.S. Langemeyer . “There was a feeling of leaving behind something special “Though I spend much time on St. Maarten still, I often dream of those wonderful years I spent there with the people of St. Martin treating me as one of their own. And I regret that so much of what I loved was sacrificed in the name of prosperity.


The hills were still not developed when this photo was taken in the 1980’s.



The Saba Islander


By Will Johnson

History revisionists will try to convince you that Columbus did not discover the continent later named America. I would argue that he did. The Vikings some 400 years before him had settlements in New Found land but it took a long time and by coincidence that one of these settlements was found.

postcard-of-by-john-vanderlyn.jpg   People say that when Columbus left Spain, he did not know where he was going, when he arrived in our waters he did not know where he was and that when he re turned to Spain he did not know where he had been. I have stood on the steps in Barcelona where Columbus came to proclaim his success in discovering new lands to the West.

The same conflicts we read about now with the emergence of China as the new global superpower and the new silk road were the main cause…

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By Will Johnson

History revisionists will try to convince you that Columbus did not discover the continent later named America. I would argue that he did. The Vikings some 400 years before him had settlements in New Found land but it took a long time and by coincidence that one of these settlements was found.

postcard-of-by-john-vanderlyn.jpg   People say that when Columbus left Spain, he did not know where he was going, when he arrived in our waters he did not know where he was and that when he re turned to Spain he did not know where he had been. I have stood on the steps in Barcelona where Columbus came to proclaim his success in discovering new lands to the West.

The same conflicts we read about now with the emergence of China as the new global superpower and the new silk road were the main cause for Columbus’ trip.



When the Moors first stepped foot in Spain, they came across a rock and called it Jab al Tariq in honour of their leader Tariq Ibn Ziyad. This rock is called Gibraltar today.

Ever since the first Crusade and the visit by Marco Polo to the East, trade between Europe and China was via a land route. The Crusades caused the emerging Muslims to strengthen their bases, the same which is taking place today. After the Capture of Jerusalem from the Crusaders and later in 1454 the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire that great City of Constantinople, Europe was in need of a sea route to China. The Muslims captured the Balkans and were knocking on the gates of Vienna before they halted their conquest. They also controlled the whole of Africa north of the Sahara the same as the Romans and the Phoenicians and Greeks before them. Europe was blocked from their lucrative land trade with the East by these Muslim conquests.  When the Spanish captured the last lands of the Moors and drove them back into North Africa the King and Queen of Spain decided to finance a Columbus’ trip to the West in search of China. Neither he or those who financed him knew that there was an entire continent several times the size of Europe [which is not a continent but the Western part of Eurasia] waiting to be discovered. There were large cities in Mexico, Central America, Peru and so on indeed. These proved to be a great boon to Spain and Europe in later years. And at the same time, it proved to be a great discovery for Spain and Europe. Columbus went to his death believing that what he had discovered were islands close to Japan and by extension China. He was granted big titles and rewards from the King and Queen of Spain and he has descendants alive today who apparently still benefit from the journey of their Italian ancestor the great navigator Christopher Columbus.



Island Council Member the Hon. Eviton Heyliger in a party meeting. His mother was from St. Vincent and of Kalinago descent.

One can make sense of the European discovery of the continent originally called the Indies, at a later time known as the New World, and eventually named America, from different perspectives.

For the Europeans. The discovery represented the beginning of a new era in which novel cosmographic and philosophical conceptions were forged. Chronicler Lopes de Gomara once said that the discovery was “the greatest thing after the creation of the world.” The discovery represented the translocation of the imperial borders and economic interests of Europe. In later centuries, the struggles for power in Europe would be mirrored in America, while the colonies produced goods and services [ much of which were robbed from the aboriginals for the exclusive benefit of the metropolis.



A reconstructed Taino village in Cuba.

For the aboriginals in America, who were indeed the first true discoverers of the continent, the arrival of the Europeans meant the beginning, in the short- or long-term of the collapse of their societies, which were at different levels of development at the time of Columbus’ arrival. The inhabitants of the Greater Antilles, who believed initially, that the Spanish were celestial beings and welcomed them with legendary hospitality, drastically changed their minds and began to treat the colonizers with resolute hostility when their true intentions were revealed. It was in the Greater Antilles where the blunt first contact between the two worlds occurred and it was most likely the coveted gold the main factor that incited the beginning of the end for the Tainos.

In Old San Juan last month, I bought a book titled “Tainos and Caribs” by Sebastian Robiou. It was originally written in Spanish and published in 2003. The English translation which I have is from March 2019 so hot off the press. I will quote from this book some of the information on the Tainos and Caribs: The Aboriginal Culture of the Antilles.

Miscellaneous-artifacts-from-the-Lesser-Antilles-exhibiting-Taino-stylistic-influenceThrough this book and the many others written on this subject we know that Columbus found many people in the islands he visited. Day after day, island after island, he writes his thoughts with admiration, while at the same time assessing and glorifying everything that is revealed to him. In no time at all and as a man of his time, he projects, on the local inhabitants and the natural surroundings his European world view. It is important to know who these people were. Many archaeologists have been digging up the land of the Taino’s and the Caribs [Kalinago] and the Arawaks since Columbus’ discovery. Former French priests who were the first European historians documented the native names of the islands as well as where and when the people they interviewed had come from.



Many artifacts have been found over the years made by the former inhabitants of these islands.

While news of the first voyage spread in Europe and the letter written by Columbus to the King and Queen enjoyed wide circulation thanks to the printing press, a fleet of 17 ships with more than 1200 crew members [settlers] would depart to the New World at the end of September 1493 under the command of the Admiral. If the purpose of the first voyage was to explore, the goal of the second voyage was primarily to colonize.

The second voyage was not a riddle. Columbus studies his notes and also, most likely, the reports of the indigenous seaman “Diego Colon,” and plots a new route to arrive at the islands that he could not reach on his first trip. Years later, this route would facilitate also the crossing to the Antilles of ships full of African slaves.

After sailing for 39 days the fleet arrives in Dominica. After that on Guadeloupe they found in a house and Las Casas mentions a curious detail, pieces of a shipwreck “that the sailors called ‘quodatse’, at which they marveled and could not imagine how it arrived here, It later proved to be parts of a shipwreck from a vessel that sunk Between the Canary Islands and the coasts of Africa, and that had arrived in the Antilles following the same ocean current used by the Admiral.

The chronicler Diego Alvarez Chanca describes a distinctive feature of Carib men:

“the difference from the other Indians in their custom, is that the Caribs have the hair very long, and the other [the Taino] have their hair cut in thousands of different ways, and they wear paint in their bodies in diverse ways […]”



As can be seen from this chart the Muslims had a lock down on the gateways to the East thereby forcing the Europeans to look for a sea route to China.

Continuing on their journey from island to island, the fleet arrived on November 14, 1493, on the island called Santa Cruz. It was here that the first clash between the Caribs and Spaniards took place. A canoe with “four men and two women and a boy” was chased by a boat with 25 Spaniards. When they saw themselves being attacked, “the Caribs […} daringly put their hands to the arches, the women as well as the men. Even with a capsized canon, the Caribs continued firing their arrows. One of them continued swimming despite being wounded by a spear. According to Michele de Cuneo, who claims to have been on the boat, the only option left was “to bring him to the edge of the boat and we cut off his head.”



Suleiman the great Turkish conqueror of Constantinople.

In his letter to an Italian nobleman, Cuneo narrates that he took for himself “a beautiful cannibal” who he saw naked and “I wanted to take pleasure with her.” She objected, so he whipped her and finally achieved his purpose: He claimed that she was better than any whore in Barcelona. This would be the first documented interracial sexual encounter in the New World.

“For years, scholars have used the term ‘prehistory’ to refer to events belonging to the era before recorded history. We should warn however, that the term has fallen into disuse due to its arbitrariness. In every culture, with or without recorded history, humans are the protagonists, the forgers of history. In this sense history evolves to be the social development in time and space.

Similarly, the word ‘culture,’ often used as a synonym for civilization, has been tied wrongfully to scientific and material progress. Culture is what every human group develops when they are provided with a common set of social relations, knowledge, beliefs, artistic ideas and characteristics of their own. As such, there is no such thing as a primitive culture, much less one culture that is superior or inferior to another. Rather, there are degrees in the historical development of culture.

“The history of Antillean cultures can be summarized as follows:

The first Antillean settlers; around 6,000 BC

They came probably from Central America and settled in Cuba and Hispaniola. They were mainly hunters, ettling inland and fabricating objects made of flint of flint stone. [On Saba flint objects were found while digging a cistern in the Level at about 8 feet below ground].

. The fishermen-gatherers: around 4,000 BC

They were natives of South America and became the first humans to populate the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico. They made objects using polished stones, and contrary to the previous settlers, exhibited a preference to live on the coasts.

The Agro-Ceramics: from 500 BC to 600 AD.

They were natives of the coast of South America and probably settled in the Antilles in several migration waves. Traditionally, it is believed that they were the first to introduce the manioc and the confection of cassava to the Antilles. [I bought some manioc meal in the Supermarket in Marigot recently and I intend to make my own cassava bread soon]

The precursors of the Tainos from 600 to 1,200 AD

“This group is the result of either the Agro-Ceramics adapting to the island ecosystem, or of new migrations from South America, or of the Archaic adopting the techniques of the Arawak,

The pinnacle of the Taino: from 1200 to 1500 AS.

The pinnacle of the historic process is reached before the arrival of the Europeans in the Antilles and is characterized by the formation of a more complex society.


Trevon Johnson here enjoying a swim in Anegada where his Saba family has a hotel.

Carib emigrants: from 1000 to 1500 AD.

This phase is best described by the invasion or migration by the Kalinago (the continental Caribs) to parts of the Lesser Antilles from the coats of South America. This group took possession of the Arawak women and adopted mainly their language and other cultural traits, constituting the Island-Carib culture, or simply Carib culture.”

On Saba in the nineteen seventies several Carib descended people from Dominica and St. Vincent came here to work. I was very liberal in granting them permission to settle here against the objections of one of the Administrators. I told him these people were here long before us. Who are we to deny them entry into the island?

Mr. Evition Heyliger’s mother was from St. Vincent and descended from the few Caribs left on that island. He has served two terms on the Island council of Saba and is now starting his third term.

My cousin Travis Johnson’s wife Lianna is a full-blown Carib from Dominica and they have two sons. And there are others who can claim descent from the original settlers of these islands. In this sense ‘I born here’ is not enough when you know history.

The newly translated book by Sebastian Robiou Lamarche, PH.D. [ ISBN 97817967 41.322] is a worthwhile read to those interested in the history of these islands before the Europeans came here. Not judging but it was a fatal day for those people who lived here at the time.


Columbus on his way to what would be seen as the New World.





By Will Johnson.

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The Court-house from around 1900.

A few weeks ago, when returning to Saba two ladies approached me at the Juliana airport. They were accompanied by a Dutch man whom I later understood to be a Judge. Me and Judge’s never sat horses but I was polite to them. The ladies were full of praise for my column ‘Under the Sea Grape Tree’. At the end of the conversation they said to me. When do you plan to write an article about the ‘Old Courthouse’?

Of course, I have referred to it a number of times. I have happy memories of the place as I worked there from 1960 to 1966. That was the year for a major restoration and our office was moved further up street. The Receivers Office that is and the Post Office was moved to the Back Street.

My boss was Joseph Alphonse Constantine O’Connor whom I have written about in a separate article. We also had Jimmy Halley, Laurel Peterson, Arnold Scot and the two postmen Sonny Boy Lake and Whitfield ‘Feely” Vlaun . We also had the Curacao Bank there and Mrs. Constant Williams worked there. Sydney Lejuez was in a customs uniform at the time and issued documents for packages being sent to Aruba and Curacao. He also gave clearances to the few ships which visited the island back then. It was mostly a few cargo schooners and sloops bringing in produce from as far as Puerto Rico.


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WILL Johnson and Arnold Scot going to lunch. Worked in the Court-House. Photo from 1960 by Vincent Doncher

Lorenzo de Lain would come around to ring the bell, and Maurice Lake (Mooch) as well. I have written about them in other articles. Upstairs in the building would be used by the Court when it was in session but that was very rarely. The Notary which was my boss at the time and later Notary Jose Speetjens would use upstairs as their office to pass deeds. Also, the Island Council of the Windward Islands would meet upstairs. When I spoke there, I thought it would be a good idea to challenge the system by basing my speech on “I am here to bury Caesar, not to praise him.” Well later in the day the news was all over town “Lord, what that little fellow did to poor Mr. Wathey. He said that he had come to bury him.” Mind you no such thing had crossed my mind.


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On the left the Shell gas station of Mr. Cyrus Wilberforce Wathey after whom the square was named in the nineteen sixties.

When the American Consul visited the island she or he would work upstairs and meet the few U.S. citizens. Fons told me once much to his regret later that I should assist the Council as “HE” would not know many of the locals who had U.S. nationality. Fons was late that morning. When I went upstairs to see what I could do to help the Consul, lo and behold there was a beautiful young lady sitting there. I thought to myself; He must have brought his Secretary along,’. But when I asked her politely when was the Consul coming? She looked at me and said: “I am representing the Consul.” After all these years I still remember her name.  But prefer to leave that tidbit of information behind. What I can divulge is that when Fons made his usual rounds at Pasangrahan Hotel, he looked surprised at me sitting there having dinner with a good-looking young lady. The man was my boss mind you. Respect. He came over to the table to ask me if I had seen the American Consul. An excuse of course to find out who the beautiful young lady was. When I told him “This is the Consul” I thought he would have fainted. She was a redhead, an expressed favorite type of gal for him.  Anyway, nothing doing, I said to myself “if I have to lose my job, so be it, but I am not backing down for Fons.” Anyway he retreated. Not gracefully, but a retreat nevertheless. He never said anything on the job to me of course. But when he was out on the town and we met up he would insinuate what he would do to me if that ever happened again. His bad luck was that all of the future consuls were men and Fons was a lady’s man. Anyway, before the lady left, she told me to bring my passport and she stamped a BI/B2 visa in it. This came in very handy for me when I needed to travel to the USA.


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Former view from the Court-house with the Blue Peter and Saba in the foreground. Photo from around 1950.

But I started out saying I was going to write about the Courthouse.

Whenever the library needs to get rid of old books Mrs. Joanna Simmons-Peterson calls me. Despite the fact that my house is full to overrunning with books I am always in the market for more. Just last week she brought me a few, one of which is ‘Caribbean Traditional Architecture” by Joan D. van Andel. She quotes Temminck Groll who did extensive studies on many of the buildings on the three Dutch Windward Islands. Also Dr. J. Hartog who wrote about the Court House.

“Around the year 1790, W.H. Rink LLD, who had just been appointed Commander of St. Martin, conceived a plan to build a Court House. A marble plaque commemorating the fact that Rink had had the Court House built by as early as 1793 demonstrates that he acted energetically. On the plaque (originally in Dutch), not only Rink’s name occurs but also those of the other founders, the councilors R.F. Muller, H. Godet, I. Pantophlet, A. van Heijningen, and A. Cannegieter.


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The old scale house was removed in 1937 when the new Police Station was built in the alley next to the Court -house and bounding the Back Street.

The imposing Court-house, situated centrally on the former De Ruyter Square, is not just one of the important traditional buildings in Philipsburg, but has always played an essential part in the lives of the inhabitants of Philipsburg; formerly as a meeting place for the council, today as law court and Post office [1985].

The building is the best-known example of the traditional architecture of St. Martin, owing to its traditional form, its position in the history of the island and to the fact that nowadays her image figures on stamps, as well as on posters, advertising matter, book covers, note-books etc. It has more or less become the trademark, the signature of St. Martin.

The square on which the Court-House is situated, was originally a quiet and peaceful square. On the sea side the square was enclosed by a building which was used as a police station until 1937. It was referred to as the ‘Scale House.’  In that year, a new police station was built almost behind the Court Hose and the old building dismantled. The square then extended to the sea. One had a clear view of the square from the sea. Everyone mooring in Great Bay when rowing to the quay is at once struck by the picturesque sight of the square with the Court-House in the background. Until 1969 the view of the Court House was still partially obstructed by two monuments. One monument commemorating Princess Juliana’s visit in 1944, and the other in memory of those ‘killed in action’ in the second World War. After renovations to the Court-House were completed in 1969, those monuments were moved to the South side of the square.

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This photo is from around 1890 or so.

To acquire a better insight into the architecture of the present Court-House, it is necessary to give some information about the first plan, the readjustments and the repairs to the building.  In 1790 when Rink started his work as Commander, there was no accommodation for him in his function. He had to work in his own house and during this period the council also met in the Commander’s house. Rink considered this an unacceptable situation. A building was necessary not only for the governing activities of the island, but also for a prison.

Before starting to build, he had to obtain permission and money from the Dutch West-Indies Company. However, in 1791 the company was wound up and permission had to be acquired from the state of The Netherlands. It is unknown whether Rink was ever granted permission, but he did finance the building with money from the government treasury. For the planning, Rink appointed the surveyor John Handleigh, who acted both as architect and contractor. The ‘Long Wall’ had also been built under Handleigh’s supervision. The present day Court-House differs from Handleigh’s design. Many alterations have been made to the building since its completion in 1793.


View of the Court-House from one of the salt lots where the salt was piled up for sale to ships from Nova Scotia and schooners from Saba.

De Hartog gives an extensive description of the plan.

“The drawing shows a handsomely spacious building, with two floors, built in a representative manner, with a balcony built in the second storey over its full width. The walls made of stone were 18 inches thick. One entered the building through a small lobby, and reached in very first place the weigh-house or weighing room (later on the public portion of the Post Office). The council hall was located above the weighing room; in the lobby was the staircase for the Commander and members of the council. On Public occasions the entire Council could make its appearance on the spacious balcony.



The old Court House being dismantled in 1966. The architect was my friend Jan [A.J.C. Brouwer]   The contractor was a Portuguese from Curacao. Carvallo I think his name was and he built the Police   station on Saba as well.

  Behind the weighing room, with separate entrances, were located the rooms of the Home Guard and of the civil captain. In the former room was another stairway; this gave access to the room of the messenger, which was connected by a door to the Council hall. The room of the messenger to which these stairs led, also served as a waiting room for those having business with the Council.

The jail was located below the Secretariat and consisted of two large and three small cells.

The building was built in a period when St. Martin was prospering. The economic situation was favorable for financing a building of approximately 10.000 guilders. But in 1819, the Court-house was destroyed by a hurricane. The roof and the top floor were swept away. A restoration was not possible until 1826.

The converting and partial rebuilding of 1826 was the most radical in the history of the building. The new building was designed by Samuel Fahlberg [a Swede from St. Barth’s] . He was a cartographer, meteorologist, civil engineer, physician, artist and Council member.



Here are some of the legendary people of St. Martin gathered here for either St. Martin’s day or Queens Birthday. From left to right. Then Commissioner Claude Wathey and his wife Eva, then Milton Peters [Commissioner], after him Island Council Member Lionel Bernard Scot followed by Mrs. Hertha Baujon-Pietersz, behind her Father Bruno Boradori, then Lt. Governor J.J.Beaujon, and behind him Clem Labega and Alexis Arnell.

A memorial stone on the west façade commemorates the restorers of 1826: D.J. van Romondt (Chairman), G. du Cloux Romney, J. Romney, T. Romney, G. Illidge and S. Fahlberg.

In January 1966, nearly one hundred years after the last radical restoration, the building had to be repaired and renovated again. This restoration had been planned since 1964. Jan Jacob Beaujon, then Lieutenant-Governor, requested A.J.C. Brouwer, head of the Technical Department of the Central Government, to make a plan for renewing the Court-house. The restoration was finished in 1969 and cost f.303.500. The restoration was executed on the condition that no changes were to be made to the exterior of the building.

The wooden top floor was pulled down and rebuilt in stone. Then a wooden weather boarding was fixed to the wall, so that the exterior of the building remained the same. By mistake, the floor was built 23 cm higher.The contractor had not kept to the architects plans. He had added three layers of concrete to the walls. The architect left the unintended change for what it was, as he thought the building had improved visually.

The tower was renewed and rebuilt using concrete; a carillon of twenty-five bells was installed in it. On the largest bell, the names of the Lt. Governors since 1951 were engraved.


The key to the Old Court-house.  By the book under the key I swear not to give it to anyone.

When comparing the original Court-house with Fahlberg’s design, it is striking that visually the building has improved. The Belfry has given the official building a more monumental look; the square now appears more to its full advantage. Moreover, narrowing of the balcony and the addition of the belfry, a vertical counter balance to the horizontal look of the facade has been created.”

When we were moving to our new location further up the street, as I was leaving the Court-House I saw a key lying on the ground. It was the key to the building. I asked Fons if I could have it and he said it was O.K. With all my moving around I still have it and a photo and a series of old photos of the Courthouse will accompany this article. Recently Captain Eddy Hodge of Winair told me:” Man Will, you killing me with all this history. I learn more from you than all of that which I had in school.’ This one is for you Eddy.




Visiting Guy on his birthday, left Peter, Wilda and grandson Raleigh, Guy and Will Johnson


Born as Samuel Guy Johnson, in the former Saba tradition, he went through life as Guy.

He was born on October 20th, 1936 at a place on Saba called “Behind-The Ridge”. No complicated names back then: “Behind-the-Ridge-”, “Above-the-Bush”, “Flat Point” and so on so that you had no excuse for not knowing where you were going to or had been. Our parents were Alma Blanche Simmons [born July 24th, 1908] and Daniel Thomas Johnson [born January 9th, 1907].

Because of circumstances at the time life was hard and as children each child had to do their share to keep the Household in food. When our mother was pregnant with Guy, while feeding grass to a large bull in the pen, he rushed her and threw her over the wall of the pen into the large rocks below. She and Guy then in the womb both survived.

As a boy growing up the island suffered much by the deprivations caused by World War two.


Left to right Will[age 13], Eric, our mother Alma Blanche Simmons, Guy, Sadie in black and visiting from Aruba Mrs. Lucy Hassell-Croes.

The house we lived in above the Sulfur Mine had been built with monies earned when our father worked in Bermuda in the dry docks there which took care of the British Naval fleet.

Our mother never liked Behind-The- Ridge. The house was built close to the edge of the cliffs above the Great Hole. Guy inherited not only his height from our mother who was [six feet and one inch tall] while he was [six feet and four inches tall], he also inherited bad memories of the place. When he had a dream, which involved Behind-The –Ridge he would say that someone in the family was about to die or that some other disaster was about to take place.


This is the house in English Quarter when it served as the residence of the Island Administrator R.O. van Delden who was then a widower, He had been married to our sister Sadie. The house was taken down at Behind-the-Ridge and brought over on head by my brothers Guy and Eric and rebuilt where it still stands today,

In 1943 the family left the home at Behind-the-Ridge and moved to the Windward Side where we had to rent a house. Something unheard of in those days and the rent which was twelve guilders a month was always a great source of worry where was the money to come from to pay the rent.

In 1955 Guy and Eric, helped by friends, took the house apart at Behind-The –Ridge. They brought it over on their heads, shingles and all, and rebuilt it in English Quarter. It even served as the home of the Island Governor, in the sixties for a while. The house still stands there proudly today having weathered all the hurricanes.


Left to right. Freddie, Eric, Guy and Will Johnson

In the nineteen fifties when Guy finished elementary school and was working for the Department of Works [Public Works], he was sent with some others from Saba to the city of Mayaguez in Puerto Rico to study the basics of agriculture.

On January 2nd, 1955 hurricane Alice dropped some 20 inches of rain on our island in less than twenty-four hours. The flood it created destroyed the road leading to the Fort Bay. In a recent interview which was posted on Face Book he tells of the hardship he faced as a nineteen-year-old, bringing up bags of cement and sand to restore the road. There was not one piece of heavy equipment on the island at the time. His wages were a bit more than the daily wages paid to our grandfather James Horton Simmons which was sixty-five cents a day when he was working in 1939 on the construction of the road.

Guy continued working for the Public Works on the building of the road until he got a much sought-after position in the Post Office. He also worked in the Treasure and later in life became the head of both departments and remained in the Treasury until his retirement.

I recall a tribute which then Lt. Governor Sydney Sorton paid to Guy at a reception at Scout’s Place. The Lt. Governor told those present that he had always looked up to Guy since he was a child. He still looked up to Guy. Not only because he was so tall, but especially because of the confidence his parents had in Guy. Mr. Sorton went on to tell the story. Back in those days the Post office was everything. Not only for incoming and outgoing mail, but it also served as a bank and so on. When his parents wanted him as a child to carry a parcel or a letter to mail, it was a worrisome task for a child. But both parents reassured him when he got to the Post Office to just ask for “Mr. Guy”, and he would take care of the rest. In my mind’s eye I can still see Mr. Sorton as a little boy looking up to that tall man behind the counter and trusting him with his parents trust that Mr. Guy would do the right thing. In talking with Commissioner Roland Wilson before I could even tell the full story, right away he said: “Yeah, yeah, I always remember that speech which Mr. Sorton made for Guy.”.


Guy in a forever good mood and an eternal smile. He was born at Behind the Ridge on October 20th, 1936

In 1960 Guy got married to Angela Johnson and together they had three sons. Greg who lives in Florida, Eddy who is a harbour pilot on St. Maarten, and our Island Governor Jonathan.

Guy’s other marriage was to the Saba Lions Club. As a charter member in 1977 he served for the rest of his life in the Club in various functions.

For many years the Lions Club took care of the Saba Summer festival also known as Carnival. He was very active with all the activities in order to see to it that the yearly event went off without a hitch.

He was also very active in the Roman Catholic church as a Member of the Parish Council and helping out wherever he could. Even in his last weeks he would be talking about church matters while in hospital.


Freddie’s daughter Desiree in the middle with two of Guy’s grandchildren visiting from the United States Sarah and Jacob

In the nineteen seventies the Christian Council of Churches [C.C.C.] created a fund to help poor people get easy loans to build cisterns with. A Minister at the time said that “A person in the islands without a cistern is a poor person.” The Saba Local Fund Foundation was established and was given a loan of twenty thousand Antillean guilders. This was a revolving fund and low interest loans were given for the purpose of building cisterns, adding on kitchens and so on. During the existence of the Fund Guy served as the Chairman and was assisted by Secretaries like Mr. Leroy Peterson, then Mrs. Wilma Every-Woods and Mrs. Sonia Richardson-Sorton.  When loans became easier to get from the commercial banks the Fund paid back the C.C.C.  the initial loan and the money made from interest on those loans were distributed to the churches on Saba. Guy traveled to various Caribbean Islands for meetings in connection with this Fund. Saba was the only island where all the loans were paid back and where full account could be given on the use of the monies loaned by the C.C.C.

Guy also like to fish and often told stories about how whales when surfacing near the small rowboats fishing on the ‘Saba Bank”, had nearly overturned the boat. From a boy Guy had to farm and keep cattle. What was done out of necessity grew into a lifelong love of working the soil of which our ancestors have been a part for centuries.

He will be laid to rest in the cemetery among his ancestors. One of his ancestors Commander Richard Johnson of 1828 is buried within sight of the cemetery. All four of Guy’s grandparents are buried here as well and he is being laid to rest in the grave of his maternal grandmother Agnes Simmons born Johnson and not too far from the last resting place of his brother Freddie.

Nothing needs to be exaggerated about his personality and his seemingly ever good mood. Now that Face Book is the most used means of communication on Saba, the tributes which have been made to him from all the Island Families tell it all.

Guy Johnson August 4th, 2001.jpeg

Guy visiting our home at The Level and going through one of my many family photo albums. He was a frequent visitor to my home.

Guy traveled the Caribbean extensively as a member of the Lions Club. He was known everywhere as “Lion Sam.”

He also went on family vacations and also for health reasons to The Netherlands and Colombia.

Throughout the hardships he experienced in life he always remained calm and collective and seemingly always in a good mood. His life goes to prove that even in a small place, on an island, much can be achieved when focusing on the positive things in life. He has been a real role model not only for his children and grandchildren but for Saba on the whole. In a sermon here in this church a couple of weeks ago, a visiting priest from Jamaica Father Bernard, sad that many people’s biggest concern is “How will I be remembered?” It is perhaps that worry which drives people of accomplishment to do ever more up to the very last.

Should Guy have had such a worry then he need not have had to. For sure he will be remembered. Not only for being a tall man, but especially for being a gentle and kind man with a forever smile even up to the last when he was going through the end days and the suffering it brings with it.

A special word of thanks to all of those who heaped praise on my brother, to all those who turned out to accompany him to his last resting place and to all of those in the health care system here on Saba and on St. Maarten who helped to take care of him in his last days.

A certain Bishop Brent reminds us in a sermon what dying is all about.

“A ship sails and I stand watching till she fades on the horizon and someone at my side says. She is gone.

Gone where? Gone from my sight, that is all. She is just as large now as when I last saw her.

‘Her diminished size and total loss from my sight is in me, not in her.

And just at the moment when someone at my side says she is gone, there are others who are watching her coming over the horizon, and other voices take up a glad shout. There she comes.

That is what dying is. A horizon and just the limit of our sight! Lift us up, oh Lord, that we may see further.!

Thanks to all, and May he rest in Peace.





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